Alberts - Lecturer
president of the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C.,
is known for his work both in biochemistry and molecular biology,
in particular for his extensive study of the protein complexes that
allow chromosomes to be replicated. Alberts graduated from Harvard
College and earned a doctorate from Harvard University in 1965.
He joined the faculty of Princeton University in 1966 and after
ten years moved to the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics
at the University of California, San Francisco, where he became
chair. He is a principal author of The Molecular Biology of the
Cell, through 3 editions the leading advanced textbook in this
important field. His most recent text, Essential Cell Biology
(1997), is intended to present this subject matter to a wider audience.
Dr. Alberts has long been committed to the improvement of science
education, dedicating much of his time to educational projects such
as City Science, a program that seeks to improve science teaching
in San Francisco elementary schools.
Allen - Mentor
The three day program for the teachers in the WWNFF who choose to
conduct their research projects in the fluid mechanics laboratory
in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering will be:
- A brief introduction
to some fluid mechanics concepts.
Halliday and Resnik, "Fundamentals of Physics",
chapter on fluid flow.
- An overview
of the Princeton University undergraduate fluid mechanics laboratory
after which teachers will operate a range of facilities including
a smoke tunnel and a wind tunnel with a drag balance to test various
of results and observation will follow.
and testing of a soap film water tunnel and a vortex ring generator.
For references for the soap film tunnel see: www.gharib.caltech.edu
The web address
for the Gas Dynamic Laboratory at Princeton is: www/princeton.edu/~gasdyn.
classes in fluid Mechanics
A simple series
of experiments will be preformed to quantify the aerodynamic effect
of altering the shape of the frontal area of a bicycle. The experiments
will be designed by the participants after discussion with the mentors.
Bicycles, radar guns, stop watches and helmets will be provided.
material see attached introduction “Aerodynamics of Bicycles” which
can be found at:
are encouraged to follow the links in this web page. For more general
experiments will then be augmented by experiments in the water tunnel
and smoke visualization tunnel in the fluids laboratory. These experiments
should clarify issues arising from the bicycle experiments and provide
a physical model for the mechanism of drag and introduce the concept
of boundary layers.
A number of
simple illustrations of where “lift” occurs and discussion will
follow on explanation of lift in terms of pressure and fluid velocity.
Although lift in the public forum is often explained in fairly simple
terms, it is hoped that discussion will lead to an explanation of
how lift is generated over bodies such as delta wings and tennis
will involve flow visualization past various shapes, measurement
of the pressure distribution around a wing and the illustration
of the formation of the formation of a starting vortex.
attached “Physics of Baseball”- Physics Today, May 1995, and “Forces
in flight” which can be found in expanded form at:
experiments will be conducted in the combustion laboratory along
with a tour of the laboratory and a demonstration of the Princeton
University glass engine.
where vortices exist in nature, from the obvious such as smoke rings
and tornadoes, to the less obvious “why do power lines whistle in
high winds” will be discussed. Discussion will be punctuated with
experiments ranging from burning of incense, production of vortex
rings using a drum filled with smoke and the construction of a soap
film water channel to highlight the formation of a Von Karmen vortex
materials “Making giant flowing soap films” http://www.pitt.edu/~maarten/work/soapflow/howto/howto.html
reading as to the state of current fluid dynamics research see attached
“tackling turbulence with supercomputers”- http://www.sciam.com/0197issue/0197moin.html
Baldwin - Resident Faculty
PhD, is Founding Director of both the Institute for a Sustainable
Environment and the Environmental Studies Program at the University
of Oregon. A past President of the North American Association for
Environmental Education, he is a member of the National Faculty
and recipient of the OSPIRG 20th Anniversary Award for
Excellence in Education (1991). He has published several books on
environmental planning and policy, and his most recent work was
in Russia and the Ukraine where he established environmental centers
and studied the effects of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.
Lecture 1. Origins/Natural
- The Big Bang
- The Cosmic
Like a Mountain
- Natural Law
and Ecological Principles Lecture
2. Systems Analysis
- Systems Thinking
- Systems Analysis
the Limits to Growth (Stella
Berman-Frank - Mentor
"C4 Photosynthesis, atmospheric CO2, and climate"
by James R. Ehleringer. In: Oecologia (1997)
An unlikely Process Full of Suprises" by Marshall D. Hatch.
In: Plant Cell Physiology (1992)
The lab will focus on the interactive effects of increasing
temperature and CO2 concentrations on the growth
and photosynthesis of important crop plants with different carbon
assimilation pathways (C3 and C4). Two representative plant crops
with a C3 and C4 pathways will be grown at tow different temperatures
and under current and enhanced concentrations of CO2.
We will follow the changes in growth, photosynthesis, photorespiration,
and morphology of the two species as well as changes in the atmospheric
concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the closed experimental
system. The results will be analyzed within the context of crop
production and adaptations under scenarios of global warming and
the increase in carbon dioxide and other green house gases.
Clark - Mentor
Gotelli, Nicholas J. (1995) A primer in ecology. Sinauer Associates,
Inc: Sunderland, Massachusetts. Chapter 1: Exponential growth; Chapter
2: Logistic growth; Chapter 5: Competition; Chapter 6: Predation
(1995) Return to the wild. New Scientist, 14 January: 35-38.
(1995) Wolf's howl heralds change for old haunts. The New York Times,
31 January: C1, C4.
(1987) Recall to the wild: wolf reintroduction in Europe and North
America. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol 2, no. 6: 146-147.
"In my module, we will be exploring the feedback loops inherent
in the biological processes of competition and predation. We will
do this through a study of wolf reintroductions into areas of their
former ranges in which they have gone extinct, by both collecting
our own "data" (using simple computer simulations), and also reading
about data collected by scientists in the field.
We will begin
by learning about how ecologists model these processes. We will
then implement these models in simple computer simulations of the
Yellowstone ecosystem, to predict what the impact of such a reintroduction
might be. Next, we will have a debate based on the results of the
simulations, as well as articles I will provide, with half of the
participants taking the side pro-introduction and half against.
Finally, we will read about what has actually happened since some
reintroductions have taken place, to learn about what the models
did and didn't predict well, both in terms of scientific as well
as larger social/economic issues.
This is why
I have deliberately provided you with older articles to read in
preparation for this project; I don't want to bias your thinking
too much before you do the simulations! Also, please don't be dismayed
by the amount of reading I have suggested from Gotelli. Try just
to get the main concepts without getting bogged down in the details
of the equations. I will spend the first part of the project going
over the material in a way that I hope will allow participants to
understand population growth, competition, and predation in a more
intuitive way than mathematical equations might allow."
Dobson - Lecturer
Author: Andrew P. Dobson
Title: Conservation and Biodiversity
ISBN: 0-7167-5057-0 (hard cover); 0-7167-6032-0 (paperback) @1996,
1998 by Scientific American Library
Distributed by: - W. H. Freeman and Company, 41 Madison Avenue,
New York, NY 10010 -Houdsmills, Basingstoke, rg21 6XS, England
Rodriguez, J.P.; Roberts, W.M.; Wilcove, D.S.; Geographic Distribution
of Endangered Species in the United States. Science, 24 January
1997, Vol. 275, pp 550-553.
Why We Need the Fig Wasp. Time, November 1997, pp 56-57.
‘Hot Spots’ and Endangered Species: New Directions for Public Policy.
Chronicle of Higher Education, October 31, 1997, p B6-B7.
"1999 State of The World"
Falkowski - Lecturer
Ethics, Policy, and Logistics of Geo engineering. Atmosphric CO2
Gao - Mentor
UV Effect on
Planning Sustainable Communities: Using Geographic Information Systmes
for Siting Environmentally Responsible Development.
lab uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a tool for siting
a new development. Lab participants will use a vast bank of digital
environmental data for locating sufficient housing, shopping, and
office space to accommodate 1.000 new residences for study area.
Participants are expected to familiarize themselves before the lab
commences with the basic of environmental planning, wetland protection,
farmland preservation and habitat protection. Teams will be created
to develop criteria as they see fit for siting the proposed development
on a manner which will have the least impact on the environment.
This lab will
provide instructional training in Arcview GIS, environmental problem
solving, spatial data modeling & production of presentation
graphics. Final projected will be evaluated for effectiveness of
design, GIS problem solving approach, thoroughness of solutions,
and overall creativity.
Outline of lab
- Lab orientation
- Login, user
- LAB #1- Intro
- lecture introducing
problems set for final project
- LAB#2- Basics
Analysis with GIS
- Group meeting
to plan final project
lecture of lab #3
- LAB#3- Geoprocessing
data, buffer & overlay
- Map creation
- Getting the
data you need
of lab #4
- LAB #4- Spatial
analysis & suitability modeling
- Group meeting
to plan final project.
Design with Nature, 1992, Ian McHarg; J. Wiley, pub.
Time, Feb. 22, 1999 Vol 153(7) “Heroes for the Planet”
"Human Sprawl: Land and the Implications for Global and Regional
Scale Environmental Use."
In recent decades
suburban development has led to vast changes to landscape in many
areas. This change has incurred a great cost to the environment
through loss of wetlands, habitat destruction, loss of prime farmlands
and forest fragmentation. At the same time once vibrante cities
are in a state of decay while sprawl presses further into the countryside.
Protection of the remaining open spaces is an important challenge
as we move into the 21st century.
need a place to live and work and the forces of development will
likely continue to change the landscape for the foreseeable futures.
The challenge is to find an environmentally responsible way of shaping
Design with Nature, 1992, Ian McHarg; J. Wiley, pub.
Time, Feb. 22, 1999 Vol 153(7) “Heroes for the Planet”
Martino - Mentor
Study of Microbial Succession and It¹s Impact on Global Biogeochemical
and development of sequential microbial populations in natural or
disturbed systems is known as microbial succession. This succession
occurs largely because the activities of initial populations of
microorganisms bring about changes in their environment. These changes
include decreases in available nutrients, alterations in pH or redox
potential (Eh), disappearance of oxygen, to name just a few. The
initial population become self-limiting due to the modifications
of the environment which it mediated. At this point members of the
population which were less dominant may find favorable growth conditions
and emerge as the new dominant population. Soon,
however, this population too may further alter the environment leading
to its own demise, and to the emergence of still another different,
In natural ecosystems
these changes may be rather subtle and can go unnoticed. However,
in the laboratory a variety of model systems can be established
which clearly demonstrate succession of microbial populations and
changes in the environment brought about by certain microbial groups.
The Winogradsky column provides a very convenient model system for
laboratory demonstrations of microbial succession. The column can
be thought of as a miniature and easily manipulated ecosystem. The
microbial population that is found in the column is a reflection
of the conditions for growth within the column or ecosystem. Thus
the population in any given system is a collection of those microorganisms
which are adapted to or at least tolerant of the prevailing environmental
conditions. Further, since these conditions are subject to change
through time it can be expected that the microbial population will
change in response to the selection pressures brought about by these
environmental fluctuations. This series of labs are designed around
the preparation and use of the Winogradsky column as a teaching
tool to show microbial succession and the potential impact bacteria
can have on global biogeochemical cycles.
Martinko, JM, Parker J. 1997. Brock Biology of Microorganisms, Eigth
Edition. Prentice Hall Publishers, Upper Saddle River, NJ. Chapter
14, pp 533-605.
Matteoda - Mentor
Remote sensing laboratory experience
Monitoring coastal ocean productivity with satellite imagery
ocean is a very dynamic environment compared to the open ocean and
new applications of satellite imagery to study this area are being
developed. Imagery gathered by meteorological satellites (NOAA Tiros
series) has been used for two decades to study the variability of
coastal currents and upwelling events. Recently a new satellite-borne
sensor designed especially for oceanographic applications (SeaWiFS)
has become available. The instruments aboard this satellite detect
light reflected from the water column in a number of different wavelengths.
This information can be used to assess the biological productivity
of the ocean, using empirical formulations. The remote sensing laboratory
at IMCS is at the forefront of application development in this exciting
area of science.
summertime we use satellite imagery to monitor the temperature and
productivity of the coastal ocean. We have studied upwelling events
along the New Jersey coast for the past six years, and are now getting
closer to understanding the mechanisms for these recurrent events.
Upwelling refers to the movement of cold, nutrient rich bottom water
to the surface, where it often leads to phytoplankton blooms. For
a thorough explanation of this phenomenon, please refer to our website:
During the remote
sensing laboratory experience here at IMCS you will learn about
the instruments, the data collection and processing, and various
applications of these data in oceanography. We have a satellite
data receiving station coupled to an image analysis package that
allows us to receive and process the data in real-time, and then
the processes imagery is automatically sent to our website. You
can access the latest image from our lab right now when you visit
our site. The group working with me will learn about the background
of remote sensing and image processing, will be trained in using
simple image processing tools, and will develop a testable hypothesis
about the effects of winds/currents on the biological productivity
of the ocean. This is going to be a process of guided inquiry, with
the expectation that you’ll test the chosen hypothesis and analyze
- Teachers visit this site before starting the lab experience, and
go through the tutorial on infrared and visible image processing.
- Has good info and the live imagery for our coast.
Miller - Lecturer
Earth System Science
Talk for Woodrow Wilson Foundation June 30, 1999
1. What is a
system? Give some examples.
2. What is Earth
(The study of and linkages among the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere,
and biosphere) Give some examples of linkages, including hydrologic
cycle, carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle.
3. How do we
represent a system? Models (example of Stella hydrologic model,
GFDL climate model)
4. Why must
we use the system approach?
of problems (examples of feedbacks, such as DMS, clouds, sea ice)
of problems that require an interdisciplinary systems approach (climate
change, ozone depletion, biodiversity loss, rainforest destruction)
Include social and economic issues. (Discuss the climate change
issue and show how the other large scale problems are related to
6. How do we
mitigation, prevention geoengineering technology (e.g., alternative
energy, fusion and Plasma Physics Lab trip)
Myers - Resident Faculty
Jean Myers has
been a science teacher for eight years, beginning as a Peace Corps
Volunteer teacher in Kenya, and teaching today at Middle College
High School at LaGuardia Community College, a small alternative
school in New York City. She has been involved with reform efforts
at her school, developing a more creative, inquiry-based science
curriculum and ways for the staff to help each other raise standards
of teaching and learning. Jean has recently mentored new teachers.
She received two Masters Degrees from Teachers College, in Teaching
Secondary Science and Curriculum and Instruction.
Ogden - Lecturer
Fueled Vehicles: Toward a Ten-Emission Transportation System"
I will discuss
prospects for improving efficiency and reducing emissions of pollutants
and greenhouse gases from vehicles.
I will describe
zero emission technologies such as fuel cells, and discuss how our
present system might evolve toward one with much reduced pollution.
Philander - Lecturer
Chair of the
Dept. of Geosciences at Princeton, and a distinguished climate change
“El Niño Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions Observable from Space.”
Paul Rodríguez - Mentor
Decision-Making For Endangered Species Conservation In The Face
Of Multiple, Uncertain, Interacting Processes
During the Summer
Environmental Science Institute, I plan to illustrate the management
of endangered species population using computer simulations and
two or three different software packages (ranging from freely-available
to commercial applications). We will explore a technique know as
population viability analysis (PVA), which uses population
forecasting models to evaluate the likelihood of persistence of
a population in the face of alternative management actions. I plan
to begin the session by introducing the conceptual background for
assessing extinction risk, describe the use of different software
packages, and present a detailed example. Students will then select
a project to work on, and attempt to answer a specific management
question for endangered species using these tools.
Possingham, H.P.; Lindenmayer, D.B. and Norton, T.W. A framework
for the improved management of threatened species based on Population
Viability Analysis (PVA). Pacific Conservation Biology, Vol 1: 39-45,
Surrey Beatty & Sons, Sydney, 1993.
R., M. Burgman and L. R. Ginzburg (1999) Applied Population Ecology.
Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA. Chapter
7: Population Viability Analysis. pp: 213-240.
Russell - Lecturer
Aerosols and Climate Change," Robert J. Charlson and Tom M.
L. Wigley, Scientific American, 1994 (February): pp. 48-57.
Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE) 1
Southern Ocean, near Hobart, Tasmania, Australia Nov/Dec, 1995
Experiment (ACE) 2
Northeastern Atlantic, near Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain in-situ:
mobility analyzers, optical probes, filter collection
NASA TOMS Satellite Data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Monitoring
and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL)
CNN Weather Forecasts and Satellite Photos
and Global Change Centers
NASA Earth Science Enterprise
Change Research Program
Smits - Lecturer
and the World Around Us."
Turksi - Resident Faculty
PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Natural Science
at Plymouth State College (PSC) in Plymouth, New Hampshire, and
a science education specialist. He is currently president-elect
of the New England Chapter of National Association of Geoscience
Teachers, Director of the Eisenhower National Clearinghouse Hub
at PSC, and Earth Science/Astronomy Consultant to the Concord Science
Project, an ongoing professional development program for K-12 teachers
in the Concord, New Hampshire school system.
T. Wetherald - Lecturer and Mentor
Richard T. Wetherald
was first employed at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Baltimore,
MD designing numerical weather prediction algorithms to be applied
to a parallel processing computer prototype. From 1964 to the present,
he has been a Research Meteorologist at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
Laboratory/NOAA, Princeton, N.J. His chief area of expertise is
greenhouse warming of climate, and he has written or co-authored
many scientific papers on this subject. He is also active in various
educational outreach programs in the local area involving both elementary
and middle schools with regard to both weather and astronomy.
of planet Earth brief comparison of Earth with Venus, Mars
- Axial tilt,
orbit; implications for seasons
and its effects (Coriolis Force) comparison with Venus, Jupiter
latitudinal and meridional circulation hurricanes, rotating thunderstorms,
tornadoes mechanisms of rotation, directions of spin for highs
of current climate heat budget at gound surface air temperature
- Methods of
observation ground observations radar radiosounde satellites
- Brief remarks
on mathematical modeling, forecasting
- Climate data
- Concept of
atmospheric “greenhouse” and how it works
- Concept of
numerical modeling box diagram, flow chart mathematical formulation
- grid network concept of climate “forecast”
- Results from
GFDL and other institutions feedback systems, mechanisms of climate
of climate change (sample topics) water resources agriculture
economics coastal regions health/insects
- Summary and