BIOLOGY - LIFE CYCLES GAME
Craig T. Brandow
Native American Preparatory School
P.O. Box 260
Rowe, New Mexico 87562
Notes to the Teacher: to top
2. Life Cycles Game is not a difficult game and can be challenged by lower or high level students. Students can use their texts to look up answers to questions they do not know.
3. Not all of the words used in the game are from a particular
area but from several subject areas in biology.
2. Prokaryote - Cell or organism lacking a membrane - bound, structurally discrete nucleus and other subcellular compartments. Bacteria are prokaryotes. Compare eukaryote. See chromosomes.
3. Centromere - A specialized chromosome region to which spindle fibers attach during cell division.
4. RNA - Ribonucleic acid, a chemical found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells; it plays an important role in protein synthesis and other chemical activities of the cell. The structure of RNA is similar to that of DNA. There are several classes of RNA molecules, including messenger RNA, transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, and other small RNAs, each serving a different purpose.
5. Mitosis - The process of nuclear division in cells that produces daughter cells that are genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell.
6. Cytokinesis - Is the process where one cell splits off from its sister cell. It usually occurs after cell division.
7. Cell cycle - Is the sequence of growth, DNA replication, growth and cell division that all cells go through.
8. Prophase - Is the first stage of mitosis proper. Chromatin condenses (remember that chromatin/DNA replicate during interphase), the nuclear envelope dissolves, centrioles (if present) divide and migrate, kinetchores and kinetochore fibers form, and the spindle forms.
9. Metaphase - A stage in mitosis or meiosis during which the chromosomes are aligned along the equatorial plane of the cell.
10. Sex chromosomes - The X and Y chromosomes in human beings that determine the sex of an individual. Females have two X chromosomes in diploid cells; males have an X and a Y chromosome. The sex chromosomes comprise the 23rd chromosome pair in a karyotype. Compare autosome.
11. DNA - (deoxyribonucleic acid): The molecule that encodes genetic information. DNA is a double stranded molecule held together by weak bonds between base pairs of nucleotides. The four nucleotides in DNA contain the bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In nature, base pairs form only between A and T and between G and C; thus the base sequence of each single strand can be deduced from that of its partner.
12. Haploid - A single set of chromosomes (half the full set of genetic material), present in the egg and sperm cells of animals and in the egg and pollen cells of plants. Human beings have 23 chromosomes in their reproductive cells. Compare diploid.
13. Amino acids - Small molecules that form the building blocks of protein.
14. Double helix - The shape that two linear strands of DNA assume when bonded together.
15. Transcription - The synthesis of an RNA copy from a sequence of DNA (a gene); the first step in gene expression. Compare translation.
16. Telophase - Is when the chromosomes reach the poles of their respective spindles, the nuclear envelope reforms, chromosomes uncoil into chromatin form, and the nucleolus (which had disappeared during Prophase) reform. Where there was one cell there are now two smaller cells each with exactly the same genetic information. These cells may then develop into different adult forms via the processes of development.
17. Cleavage furrow - When cytokinesis occurs during mitosis, the location of the furrow is ordinarily determined by the orientation of the spindle, in whose equatorial region the furrow forms. The furrow becomes progressively deeper, until it cuts completely through the cell producing two new cells.
18. Cell plate - Forms in cytoplasm of plant cell and slowly becomes larger until its edges reach the outer surface of the cells and the cells contents are cut in two.
19. Hybridization - The process of joining two complimentary strands of DNA or one each of DNA and RNA to form a double-stranded molecule.
20. Morphogenesis - The establishment of shape and pattern in a organism.
21. Daughter cell - Process whereby a mother cell gives rise to two identical daughter cells (see mitosis) or four gametes (see meiosis).
22. DNA Fingerprinting - The characterization of one or more features of an individuals genome by developing a DNA fragment band (allele) pattern. If a sufficient number of different size bands are analyzed, the resultant bar code profile will be unique for each individual, except identical twins. It involves the use of restriction enzymes and gel electrophoresis.
23. Autosome - Non-sex chromosome. There are 22 autosomes in the human genome.
24. Interphase - The period in the cell cycle when DNA is replicated in the nucleus; followed by mitosis.
25. Nucleotide - A subunit of DNA or RNA consisting of a nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, thymine, or cytosine in DNA; adenine, guanine, uracil, or cytosine in RNA), a phosphate molecule, and a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA). Thousands of nucleotides are linked to form a DNA or RNA molecule. See DNA, base pair, RNA.
26. Protein - A large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order; the order is determined by the base sequence or nucleotides in the gene coding for the protein. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body cells, tissues, and organs, and each protein has unique functions. Examples are hormones, enzymes, and antibodies.
27. Enzyme - A protein that acts as a catalyst, speeding the rate at which a biochemical reaction proceeds but not altering the direction or nature of the reaction.
28. Alleles - Alternative forms of a genetic characteristic.
29. Chromosomes - The self-replicating genetic structures of cells containing the cellular DNA that bears in its nucleotide sequence the linear array of genes. In prokaryotes, chromosomal DNA is circular, and the entire genome is carried on one chromosome. Eukaryotic genomes consist of a number of chromosomes whose DNA is associated with different kinds of proteins.
30. Gene - The fundamental unit of heredity.
31. Gene mapping - Determination of the relative position of genes on a DNA molecule (chromosome or plasmid) and of the distance, in linkage units or physical units, between them.
32. Genome - The entire genetic identity of an individual, including alleles, or gene forms, that do not show as outward characteristics.
33. Mutation - Any heritable change in DNA sequence.
34. Plasmid - A small circular piece of DNA free in the cytoplasm of a bacterial or yeast cell and replicated independently of the cell's chromosome.
35. Recessive gene - A gene which must be present on both chromosomes in a pair to show outward signs of a certain characteristic.
36. Amnion - An extra embryonic membrane that forms a fluid-filled sac containing the embryo in reptiles, birds, and mammals.
37. Translation - The process by which RNA makes proteins.
38. Embryo - A plant or animal in an early stage of development, generally still contained within the seed, egg or uterus.
39. Fertilization - Fusion of nuclei of egg and sperm.
40. Yolk - Stored food material in an egg.
41. Meiosis - The process of two consecutive cell divisions in the diploid of sex cells. Meiosis results in four rather than two daughter cells, each with a haploid set of chromosomes.
42. Karotypes - A photomicrograph of an individuals chromosomes arranged in a standard format showing the number, size, and shape of each chromosome type; used in low-resolution physical mapping to correlate gross chromosomal abnormalities with the characteristics of specific diseases.
43. Zygote - A fertilized egg cell.
44. Blastula - An early embryonic stage in animals, preceding the delimitation of the three principle tissue layers; frequently spherical and hollow.
45. Gastrula - A two-layered, three-layered, animal embryonic stage.
46. Clone - A group of genetically identical cells or organisms that are descended from one parent. Identical twins are clones, as are clones of bacteria that reproduce by simple cell division.
47. Gamete - Mature male or female reproductive cell (sperm or ovum) with a haploid set of chromosomes (23 for humans).
48. Phenotype - The outward physical characteristics of an organism.
49. Genotype - The particular combination of genes present in the cells of an individual.
50. Binary Fission - Reproduction by the division of a cell into two essentially equal parts by a nonmutatic process.
To help familiarize the students with new words and concepts. Students will use logical approaches to solving the problem and will use textbook as a resource.
Biology Textbooks, Biology Life Cycles Word Game, dice, cup, hour glass, score sheets and game cards.
Follow game rules and instructions. The class will be divided into groups and each group will have a life cycles game board to use. Each group will select the role of each of the players before starting the game.
1. Teacher will divide up the class into groups of 4
Each group will be given a "Biology Life Cycles Game Board" (50 cards with definitions on one side and blank or picture on opposite side, 2 playing dice, cup (to shake dice), scoring paper, miniture hour glass (like one used in scrabble) and reference materials (biology). The gameboard and cards are items that can be made by the teacher or students in the classroom using cardboard and construction paper.
2. In order to play the game
Each student will take a turn rolling the dice; if the numbers come up even, then the student can pick up one card from the stack at the center of the gameboard. The vocabulary/concept cards will be laying face down on the gameboard. When the student picks up the card, they will try and match it up with the labels on the gameboard. The miniture hour glass will be turned over as soon as the dice are rolled, this will be done by the scorekeeper.
3. When the sand runs out on the hourglass, the scorekeeper will call "time" and the next person will take their turn. The game cards are worth 5 points, if the card (with the definitions) matches the right name, then the player is awarded 5 points. Anytime, a player throws a dice and it comes up with odd numbers, they lose their turn and must pass the cup to the player on their left. The game always goes in a clockwise direction!
4. Students can use their texts to look up any vocabulary words they are not familiar with, however, if they have not read the chapter assigment, they will have some trouble meeting the time window.
Scorekeeper will announce the winning player whose total score reaches 100 points. The students who have the highest points in their respective group will play the winners of the other groups until there is one overall winner. The top 3 class winners will help the teacher to pick vocabulary words that can be used in future life cycles board games.
Students will complete game when the first student accumulates 100 points. to top
2. What the Heck is a Gene? http//falcon.cc.ukans.edu/-jbrown/gene.html
3. Diving into the Gene Pool - http//www.exploratorium.edu//genepool/glossary.html
4. Cell Division: Binary Fission And Mitosis - http//www.eme.maricopa.edu/bio18/BIOBK/BioBookmito.html
5. Mitosis - http//www.botany.utexas.edu/facstaff/facpages/ksata/ecPP96/9/index.htm
6. Biological Science (Fifth Edition), William T. Keeton, James L. & Carol G. Gould, W.W. Norton and Company, New York, New York. 1993.
7. Schaum's Outline of "Theory and Problems of Molecular and Cell Biology",
William D. Stansfield, Ph.D., Jaime S. Colume', Ph.D. and Raul J. Cano,
Ph.D., McGraw-Hill, 1996
8. DNA FingerPrinting - An Introduction, Lorne T. Kirby - Stockton Press, 15 East 26th Street, New York, New York 10010, 1990.
9. Discovering DNA Structure http://www.gene.com/AE/AE/AEPC/WWC/1994/discovering_dna.html.