|Target age or ability group:||All.|
|Class time required:||25 minutes to full period.|
|Materials and equipment:||Per competing table:
1. deck of cards, numbered 1-30. Cut colored 3x5 index cards into thirds to keep materials separate
2. laminated sheet of rules (see next page)
3. score sheet with names of competing members on each table
|Summary of activity:||Team Games Tournaments are a cooperative learning strategy developed at Johns Hopkins University. It can be used as an assessment alternative and/or as a review technique.|
1. Structure initial team composition by identifying the highest- and lowest-performing students in class. (Identify as many of each as there are teams.) The best number for a team is five. (A class of 29 would have five teams of five and one of four.)
2. Place one high- and one low-performing student on each team. Fairly distribute the remaining "middle" students.
3. On the day you announce the initial teams, you may wish to do a team-building activity. One students enjoy is choosing a name (put some limits on this) and designing a sign or crest to post around the classroom. This helps them "buy into" the project.
4. Make tournament score sheets by placing equal-performing students (according to game scores) from different teams on the same competing "table." Place four per table optimally, then make tables of three or two.
5. After teams decide who is first, slip answers under the rule sheet and hand the first reader the questions.
6. Players may repeat the same question sheets (should know them all now!) or have several different sheets for them to do as a unit review.
7. Tournament scores are recorded on a grade book-like sheet divided up by teams. Announce the winners after each round, post the names or Polaroid picture for the week, or award a small treat or privilege. Besides using the scores as alternatives to written tests, you could:
8. Change team members as in Step 1 above each grading period. This prevents the same team winning every period and a whole host of other problems. (For example, you can put two people that can't play together on the same team so they'll never compete.)
|TGT SCORE SHEET|
1. Each player chooses a card from the stack. The one with the highest card begins. Return cards to stack and shuffle.
2. The first person should draw a card from the top of the stack and turn over on the table. Read the question out loud. (This original "reader" gives an answer with no penalty!).
3. Play goes in clockwise direction. Each successive person in order may only say either "PASS" (and give no answer) or "CHALLENGE." A challenge is made if incorrect answers have been given so far.
4. After last person passes or challenges, check the answer on the answer sheet.
5. To score: first correct player gets the card; each incorrect person who is challenged returns a card to the bottom of the stack. (An incorrect reader loses no point!)
6. The next play continues with question sheet moving clockwise.
7. When card stack is empty, record number of cards each player earned under "Game" column of score sheet. Shuffle stack and play until time is called or question sheet is changed.
8. At end of tournament, add total of cards earned for all games and find Tournament Points below.
|For a Three-Player Game:||For a Two-Player Game:|
|Third||Adapted from Johns Hopkins University Center for Cooperative Learning.|
|1. Name two main sources of variation for evolution.||2. Term for situation where disaster leaves small population with particular trait.||3. Person who wrote about evolution of individuals.|
|4. List four of the five concepts of natural selection.||5. "Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny" means what?||6. List five most important types of evidence for evolution.|
|7. 25% of population is homozygous dominant. What percentage is homozygous recessive?||8. Our "modern synthesis" of natural selection adds this component to Darwin's concepts.||9. New species arises in midst of parent population.|
|10. The human coccyx is an example of this.||11. Name three properties of a Hardy-Weinberg "ideal population."||12. Give a clear example of human polymorphisms.|
|13. In the Batesian form of this, a harmless organism may have harmful qualities.||14. Pattern of speciation in which a species branches into others.||15. Name a specific post-zygotic barrier.|
|16. A woman saying "I wouldn't touch him if he were the last man on earth!" best describes which reproductive barrier?||17. This mode of selection favors extreme morphs on both ends.||18. What is the basis of the "Eve Hypothesis"?|
|19. Bobby dates his cousin as a biology project, but finds out "relative dating" really is supposed to use these.||20. Which barrier is the kind where a sperm and egg just can't find each other?||21. This change in the earth is linked with Australian uniqueness.|
|22. Name of chart which shows relationships of species to each other.||23. This mode of selections favors the "average Joe."||24. Name five conditions of the early earth.|
|25. When organisms die their L-amino acids slowly "flip" to D form. This molecular clock is called?||26. A population "fans out" to new environments and produces many new species.||27. Pattern of speciation where a species evolves into a new form.|
|28. How Hardy and Weinberg represent heterozygotes.||29. Person who said that population growth will outstrip food supply.||30. This geologist authored Principles of Geology about uniformitarianism.|
|1. recombination, mutations||16. behavioral|
|2. bottleneck||17. disruptive or diversifying|
|3. Lamarck||18. first African woman passed on all mitochondria for humans|
|4 overproduction; population stable; struggle for life; individuals vary; suitable variability persist||19. index fossil|
|5. development of individual reflects evolution of species||20. gametic|
|6. fossils; embryology; taxonomy; homologies (anatomy); vestigial organs; molecular biology||21. Pangaea (continental drift)|
|7. 25 percent||22. phylogenetic tree|
|8. genetics/population genetics||23. stabilizing|
|9. sympatric||24. low O2; UV; volcanic; lightning; meteors; CH4, NH3, H2 gases|
|10. vestigial structure||25. racemization|
|11. large; random mating; no mutation, natural||26. adaptive radiation (divergence) selection, or migration (isolation)|
|12. (check with teacher if not sure)||27. anagenesis|
|13. mimicry||28. 2 pq|
|14. cladogenesis||29. Thomas Malthus|
|15. hybrid inviability or sterility||30. Lyell|
|1. Method of dating once-living things.||2. Name the three concepts of Lamarck.||3. The major difference between Lamarck's and Darwin's concepts.|
|4. Oyster produces up to 20 million eggs at a time refers to this concept of natural selection.||5. The other person who came up with natural selection from similar observations.||6. Name four types of scientific evidence of evolution.|
|7. Name of book Darwin published about natural selection.||8. Name three ways that fossils are preserved.||9. The appendix is an example of this.|
|10. Many species evolving from a common ancestor because they moved into different environments.||11. A certain insect and flower "match" each other's changes over a long time.||12. If two similar species cannot mate because they don't meet each other.|
|13. If unrelated species (dolphin and shark) have very similar structures because they are in similar environments.||14. The two important evolutionary factors (from the video).||15. Why are some children born with tails?|
|16. What causes new variations to come about?||17. The approximate age of the earth.||18. How was the early earth different from now?|
|19. (T/F) Modern evolution theory said we come from apes.||20. Name the ship on which Darwin spent five years collecting evidence.||21. A more accurate way to state "survival of fittest."|
|22. What is difference between artificial and natural selection?||23. Term for two species becoming more different over time.||24. If two frogs don't want to breed at the same time (term).|
|25. Give clear example that disproves Lamarck's concepts.||26. According to natural selection, which organisms will pass on traits?||27. Name a way human embryos are like other embryos.|
|28. A bat wing, arm, and whale flipper all have same bones relates to this concept.||29. The approximate time life has been on earth.||30. Who said that "an organism changes to fit the environment" ?|
|1. carbon 14||16. mutation, genetic recombination|
|2. need, use and disuse, inheritance of acquired characteristics||17. 4.5 billion years|
|3. Lamarck believed an organism can change during its lifetime if it "needed" to||18. no oxygen, hot, volcanic, lightning, more UV|
|4 overproduction||19. False|
|5. A.R. Wallace||20. HMS Beagle|
|6. fossils, homologous structures, vestigial structures, biochemistry, breeding, diversity of life on earth||21. elimination of unfit|
|7. Origin of the Species (by Means of Natural Selection)||22. man "forces" artificial (dogs)|
|8. rock sediments, ice, tar, amber||23. divergent evolution|
|9. vestigial structure||24. reproductive isolation|
|10. adaptive radiation||25. (check with teacher if not sure)|
|11. coevolution||26. surviving organisms|
|12. reproductive isolation||27. have tail, "gill slits," start as ball of cells, etc.|
|13. convergent evolution||28. homologous structures|
|14. time and death to make room for new life||29. 3.5 billion|
|15. ancient genes that should be "off" are expressed||30. Lamarck|