Toni L. Miller
1992 Woodrow Wilson Biology Institute
A. Background Information:
Bloom's Taxonomy is a sequential hierarchy of Information Processing:
a. Use one long line between two extremes and ask students to place a
mark on the line that best represents how they feel about the issue.
Uses: individual, small groups, entire class
Agree Very Much ----------------------- Disagree Very Much
Agree Very Much ---1---2---3---4---5--- Disagree Very Much
Agree Very Much 1 2 3 4 5 Disagree Very Much
a. Brainstorm all possible choices in a given situation.
b. For each choice:
a. Identify the problem and basic policy objectives.
b. Formulate alternative courses of action.
c. Identify relative consequences of each alternative.
d. Assign a probability to each relevant consequence.
e. Assign a value, i.e., a numerical cost or benefit, to each consequence.
f. Combine the information obtained in stages 3, 4, 5 and select the best alternative."(p168)
a. Using the continuum model above, construct a list of values about a topic.
b. Give it to students before a unit to see how they feel on specific issues.
c. After the unit, give the same instrument again and compare the results.
a. List four animals on the board: Elephant, Ant, Eagle, Butterfly.
b. Ask students to list animals in order of importance and to justify their ordering.
c. Compare lists and justifications. Discuss idea of open-endedness.
a. Identify and Define the Problem.
b. Explain the Ethical Dilemma (which values conflict?)
c. With an "I" value sheet, list five or more personal values to support or go against the dilemma.
d. Rank the values from 1 (most important) through 5 (least important)
e. Check values 1 and 2 to see if they are in conflict.
f. List as many alternative solutions as possible.
g. Rank alternative solutions.
h. State #1 alternative solution.
i. List and explore values you hold that justify it's being #1 solution (at least three values).
j. State your least important solution.
k. List and explore values you hold that justify it's being your least important.
l. State #1 alternative solution again.
m. List as many probable consequences as you can from this solution. Tell system (who or what is affected), and the consequence to that system.
n. Place a (+) beside each good consequence and a (-) beside each undesirable consequence.
o. Tally + and - marks.
p. List any values you have in conflict with your #1 choice. If so, go through steps 3-16 once again.
q. Give reasons why others may not agree with your solution.
r. Restate the problem and your decision.
a. Give a moral dilemma after a thorough informational unit.
b. Ask student or small group to answer the following questions in a progression:
c. example: I have leftover oil from a car oil change. Should I:
a. Select a specific Technology Issue.
b. List essential information or knowledge you want students to have. Teacher should cover this information before simulation begins.
c. Select and define roles (usually six): Following is a guide for role creation:
d. List information students should research in order to play their roles effectively
e. List specific sub-issues within the larger issue.
f. For each role:
g. Divide class into groups of five or six.
h. Self selection of roles works best.
i. Order Of Simulation: (videotape last two steps to show on local educational channel)
j. Allow for individual expression:
|FACT - FINDING|
|ROLE - PLAYING:|
(Results of tasks)
|3 Ð 5 Hours||2 Ð 5 Hours||10 Ð 20 minutes|
|Individual research, comparison of own research with that of others.||Group relations, role-playing, working through ask sheet.||Public speaking, acting, writing or combination of these.|
|A-V materials, articles booklets, filmstrips, videotapes, etc.||Desks or tables which facilitate discussion; Role sheets, name tags Video camera & recorder.||Video camera & recorder. Staging area for presenta-tions|
**Varies with age and complexity; less for higher grades